Testicular Pain Testicular Pain

Testicular Pain

Do you experience pain or discomfort that is felt in one or both testicles?

If you experience severe pain go to the emergency room.

TESTICULAR PAIN

Testicular pain is pain or discomfort that is felt in one or both testicles. The pain may originate from the testicle itself, or it may be the result of other conditions affecting the scrotum, groin, or abdomen. Though there are numerous medical conditions that can cause testicular pain, it is important to understand that a few of them constitute medical emergencies that require immediate medical attention in order to prevent impairment or loss of testicular function. Soreness may be acute (starting suddenly and lasting less than three months) or chronic (long-lasting). The testicular pain may be constant or intermittent.

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SYMPTOMS

Symptoms associated with the pain include:

  • Testicle tenderness
  • Swelling
  • Redness

You may have other signs like:

  • Fever
  • Vomiting
  • Painful urination
Call your doctor for an appointment if:
  • you feel a lump on your scrotum
  • you develop a fever
  • your scrotum is red, warm to the touch, or tender
  • you’ve recently been in contact with someone who has the mumps
You should seek emergency medical attention if your testicular pain:
  • is sudden or severe
  • occurs along with nausea or vomiting
  • is caused by an injury that’s painful or if swelling occurs after one hour
Call your doctor for an appointment if:
  • you feel a lump on your scrotum
  • you develop a fever
  • your scrotum is red, warm to the touch, or tender
  • you’ve recently been in contact with someone who has the mumps
You should seek emergency medical attention if your testicular pain:
  • is sudden or severe
  • occurs along with nausea or vomiting
  • is caused by an injury that’s painful or if swelling occurs after one hour

CAUSES OF TESTICULAR PAIN

There are many possible causes of testicular pain.

  • Injury or trauma: An injury to the testicles can occur during physical activity, a fight, or an accident.
  • Orchitis: Inflammation of one or both testicles is caused by a bacterial or a viral infection. Some of the bacteria that may cause orchitis include Escherichia coli, streptococcus, and staphylococcus. Bacteria associated with sexually transmitted diseases (such as gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia) can also cause inflammation of the testicles. In younger boys under age 10, the mumps virus is the common cause of orchitis, which can occur four to six days after the onset of the mumps. Up to one-third of boys who have the mumps will develop orchitis.
  • Nerve damage, entrapment, or inflammation: Diabetic neuropathy may cause damage to the nerves of the scrotum.
  • Inguinal hernia: A section of intestine protrudes through a weak part of the stomach muscles near the groin.
  • Epididymitis: Inflammation occurs in the epididymis, the tightly coiled mass of thin tubes that carries sperm from the testes to the sperm duct. Acute epididymitis involves pain, swelling, and inflammation of the epididymis that lasts less than six weeks. In some cases, the testicle is also involved (a condition known as epididymo-orchitis). Chronic epididymitis lasts longer than six weeks, with symptoms of discomfort and/or pain in the scrotum, testicle, or epididymis.
  • Spermatocele: Fluid in a cyst near the testicle.
  • Hydrocele: Collection of fluid around the testicle.
  • Varicocele: A group of enlarged veins near the testicles.
  • Testicular torsion: Twisting of one or both testicles occurs around the spermatic cord, causing the blood supply to the testicle(s) to be cut off. It occurs when the tissues around the testicle are loosely attached to the scrotum, allowing the testicle to twist on itself. It requires immediate medical treatment. Torsion may occur during exercise, but it can also happen when standing, sitting, or during sleep.
  • Kidney stones: These may cause referred pain in the scrotum.
  • Post-vasectomy pain syndrome: Men who have undergone a vasectomy may experience pain, possibly caused by increased pressure in the vas or epididymis.
  • Testicular cancer: Some tumors might cause a dull ache or pain in the testicles, or heaviness and aching in the lower abdomen or scrotum.

RISK FACTORS

Your doctor can successfully treat most cases of pain in the testicle. An untreated infection such as chlamydia or a serious condition such as testicular torsion may result in permanent damage to your testicles and scrotum.

Damage may affect fertility and reproduction. Testicular torsion that results in gangrene can cause a life-threatening infection that can spread throughout your body.

DIAGNOSIS

In order to diagnose the underlying cause of testicular pain, the health-care professional will conduct a complete history and physical exam.

Testicular ultrasound may be performed. This non-invasive test can evaluate the blood flow to the testicle (if testicular torsion is suspected), in addition to helping diagnose other anatomical abnormalities within the scrotum that can cause testicular pain.

Laboratory tests that may be useful in helping make the diagnosis include:

diagnostics

Lab Test

diagnostics

Testicular Ultrasound

TREATMENT FOR TESTICULAR PAIN

The treatment will depend on the underlying cause. Treatment may require use of medications, spermatic cord block procedure, or in more serious cases, surgery may be required.

MEDICATION

Pain relievers: such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and similar drugs may help to relieve pain in cases due to injury or trauma. Orchitis or epididymitis that is caused by a bacterial infection should be treated with antibiotics.
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SPERMATIC CORD BLOCK

A spermatic cord block can offer temporary relief to men who experience chronic pain in the testes. A spermatic cord block is used for patients who do not have an infection or tumor, but continue to experience pain.
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SURGERY

In certain situations, such as testicular torsion, testicular cancer, hydrocelle or varicocele, surgery may be needed. Testicular torsion is an urgent condition that must be treated promptly to avoid the loss of a testicle from loss of blood supply. Types of surgery for testicular pain depend on the cause.
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If you need to discuss this sensitive medical concern, schedule a consultation at our clinic in a safe confidential environment. Let us help you achieve optimal health and wellness in a professional setting.

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